Focus on Intellectual Property Protection
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Publications on seed-related Intellectual Property Protection


The Plant Variety Protection Act - An increasingly important form of intellectual property protection for plants
Morrison & Foerster, March 2015


Who Benefits from IP Rights for Agricultural Innovation
by Steward Redqueen
CropLife International, November 2014
A new study, Who Benefits from IP Rights for Agricultural Innovation by Steward Redqueen, follows the journey of Ogura, an oilseed rape hybridization technology developed by INRA, the French National Research Institute, across its 20 year patent life. The study analyzes the time and money innovators invested, the benefits to farmers and consumers, and the role of intellectual property in making it all possible.
The authors discovered Ogura created €1.2 billion in economic benefits to society with €960 million, or 80%, accruing downstream to farmers and consumers — a significant boon for the French economy. Ogura developers invested €56 million and nearly a decade of work bringing the Ogura oilseed rape hybrids to market and required 15 years to break even on their investments.
In light of this, the authors determine that without the robust protections offered by current intellectual property laws, INRA and the seed producers would not have been able to recoup their investment and would likely have never developed Ogura oilseed rape hybrids — costing society over €1 billion in economic benefits.
Download Who Benefits from IP Rights for Agricultural Innovation: The Case of Ogura Oilseed Rape in France by Steward Redqueen (Full Report) (Executive Summary)
Download Intellectual Property Helps Farmers Grow infographic (PDF) (JPEG) - IP in Ag Innovation series
IP52 is a new movement, started by CropLife International and dedicated to changing the way we look at the world around us by better understanding the role of IP in our lives.


Framework for the introduction of Plant Breeders’ Rights, Guidance for Practical Implementation
Naktuinbouw issued a book entitled Framework for the introduction of Plant Breeders’ Rights, Guidance for Practical Implementation, the handbook describes the implementation of Plant Breeders’ Rights in countries considering setting up a UPOV-based system of Plant Breeders’ Rights or that have just become members of UPOV.
The book was written by Dr. A.J.P. van Wijk and Dr. N.P. Louwaars. Both authors are alumni of the University of Wageningen and have a long track record in Plant Breeders’ Rights and the implementation of Plant Breeders’ Rights systems in countries where no such system existed. For companies this book is an ideal gift for authorities in countries where a good working Plant Breeders’ Rights system does not yet function.

Among other things, the book looks at the worldwide UPOV system, the development of a variety and the assessment of a new variety, but also the setting up, implementation and acceptance of a Plant Breeders’ Rights system and the costs involved. It also offers insight into the relationship between Plant Breeders’ Rights and international biodiversity obligations.

The book can be ordered from Naktuinbouw for € 24.95 (excluding VAT and shipping). An order form can be found at this website. Please e-mail for more information. (May 2014)


Intellectual Property Strategy
John G. Palfrey
The MIT Press, October 2011 - 5 x 7, 120 pp.
ISBN-10: 0-262-51679-9  /  ISBN-13: 978-0-262-51679-2
Most managers leave intellectual property issues to the legal department, unaware that an organization’s intellectual property can help accomplish a range of management goals, from accessing new markets to improving existing products to generating new revenue streams. In this book, intellectual property expert and Harvard Law School professor John Palfrey offers a short briefing on intellectual property strategy for corporate managers and nonprofit administrators. Palfrey argues for strategies that go beyond the traditional highly restrictive “sword and shield” approach, suggesting that flexibility and creativity are essential to a profitable long-term intellectual property strategy--especially in an era of changing attitudes about media.
Intellectual property, writes Palfrey, should be considered a key strategic asset class. Almost every organization has an intellectual property portfolio of some value and therefore the need for an intellectual property strategy. A brand, for example, is an important form of intellectual property, as is any information managed and produced by an organization. Palfrey identifies the essential areas of intellectual property--patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret--and describes strategic approaches to each in a variety of organizational contexts, based on four basic steps.
The most innovative organizations employ multiple intellectual property approaches, depending on the situation, asking hard, context-specific questions. By doing so, they achieve both short- and long-term benefits while positioning themselves for success in the global information economy.

The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual Property, Biodiversity and Food Security
Geoff Tansey and Tasmin Rajotte, co-editors
Earthscan Publications Ltd, ISBN-10: 1844074293, ISBN-13: 978-1844074297

Seed Wars: Controversies and Cases on Plant Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property
Dr. Keith Aoki, Professor of Law, University of California, Davis
Carolina Academic Press 2008  -  ISBN: 978-1-59460-050-0
Seed Wars is a comprehensive overview of the current domestic and international legal controversies regarding intellectual property protections for plant genetic resources (PGRs) over the past three decades.


Food, Biological Diversity and Intellectual Property: The Role of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
Alimentation, diversité biologique et propriété intellectuelle: le rôle de l’Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV)
Alimentos, diversidad biológica y propiedad intelectual: El papel de la UPOV (Unión Internacional para la Protección de las Obtenciones Vegetales)

Graham Dutfield
Quaker United Nations Office (February 2011)

Intellectual Property and Horticultural Science: The Path from Idea, Technology Development, Commercialization, and Impact
John R. Clark
HortScience Jan 1 2011: 4–5. (subscription or pay-per-view)
(January 2011)

Breeding Business - The future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights
Center for Genetitc Resources, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands (December 2009)

Patent Rights and Patent Wrongs?
ISB News Report (April 2010)

Gene discovery, ownership and access for developing countries in the era of molecular genetics (April 02
Levi Mansur, Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile
EJB Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

Improved and expanded ipHandbook of Best Practices website (May 09)
MIHR and PIPRA publish online version of the IP Handbook of Best Practices in Health and Agricultural Innovation (Nov 07)

MIHR and PIPRA to launch handbook of best practices for intellectual property management in health and agricultural innovation (April 07)

Unveiling rice's DNA under Intellectual Property Rights regime (April 07)

Agricultural Biotechnology: Legal Liability Regimes from Comparative and International Perspectives
Stuart J. Smyth and Drew L. Kershen (October 2006)
Global Jurist Advances: Vol. 6: No. 2, Article 3

Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Facilitated Access or Utility Patents on Plant Varieties?
IP Strategy Today No. 13-2005, February 06

The evolving rights to intellectual property protection in the agricultural biosciences
Brian D. Wright, Philip G. Pardey
Int. J. Technology and Globalisation, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2, 2006

Consumers benefit from strong, enforceable intellectual property protection in seed industry, according to Iowa State University study
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, November 05

Impacts of Strengthened Intellectual Property Rights Regimes on the Plant Breeding Industry in Developing Countries
N.P. Louwaars, R. Tripp, D. Eaton, V. Henson-Apollonio, R. Hu, M. Mendoza, F. Muhhuku, S. Pal & J. Wekundah
Wageningen University

Intellectual Property Rights for Plant Biotechnology: International Aspects
Sara Boettiger, Gregory D. Graff, Philip G. Pardey, Eric Van Dusen an d Br ian D . Wright
Handbook of Plant Biotechnology (2004)

Making sense of patent rules for plant varieties
Science magazine, November 04

Plants and Intellectual Property: An International Appraisal
Science magazine, November 04

American Patent Policy, Biotechnology, and African Agriculture: The Case for Policy Change
by Michael R. Taylor and Jerry Cayford
A Resources for the Future (RFF) report, January 04

Intellectual property protection for plant-related inventions in Europe
from Nature Reviews via (October 03)
by Barbara Fleck & Claire Baldock

Barbara Fleck and Claire Baldock are at the Boult Wade Tennant, Verulam Gardens, 70 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8BT, United Kingdom

International Service for the Acquisition of Agribiotech Applications (ISAAA) releases information package on Intellectual Property Rights and Agricultural Biotechnology (November 02)

Intellectual property protection for plant innovation: Unresolved issues after J.E.M. v. Pioneer
Mark D. Janis & Jay P. Kesan. Nature Biotechnology 20, 1161 - 1164 (2002) doi:10.1038/nbt1102-1161

SOURCE: University of California, Berkeley (source)

Wright, Brian D., and T. Shih. Forthcoming 2011. “Agricultural Innovation.” In Accelerating Innovation in Energy: Lessons from Multiple Sectors, eds. R. Henderson and R.  Newell, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press for National Bureau of Economic Research.

Koo, B., and B.D. Wright. 2010. "Dynamic Effects of Patent Policy on Sequential Innovation." Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 489- 512, Summer.

Lei, Z., R. Juneja, and B. D. Wright. 2009. "Patents versus patenting: implications of intellectual property protection for biological research." Nature Biotechnology 27, No. 1, January: 36-40.

Wright, Brian D. 2009. Review of "The WTO and India's Pharmaceuticals Industry: Patent Protection, TRIPS, and Developing Countries." by Sudip Chaudhuri, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005. Economic Development and Cultural Change.

Wright, B. D. 2007. “Agricultural Innovation after the Diffusion of Intellectual Property Protection.” Agricultural Biotechnology and Intellectual Property, J. Kesan,  Ed. Wallingford, UK: CABI International. 

Boettiger, S., and B. D. Wright. 2006. “Open Source Biology: Open Questions.”   Innovations Fall, Vol. 1, No. 4: 45–5

Wright, Brian D. 2006. “I’innovazione in agricoltura nell’era diritti di proprieta Intellectuale.” In M. De Benedictis, F. de Stefano and A. Giannola, eds. Dal Meridionalismo All’agricultura Del Terzo Millennio. Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Ialiane.

Wright, Brian D. 2006. Plant Genetic Engineering and Intellectual Property ProtectionicAgricultural Biotechnology in California Series, Publication 8186, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Wright, Brian D., and P.G. Pardey. 2006. “The Evolving Rights to Intellectual Property Protection in the Agricultural Biosciences.” International Journal of Technology and Globalization 2, nos. 1/2: 12-29.

Wright, Brian D., and P.G. Pardey. 2006. “Changing Intellectual Property Regimes: Implications for Developing Country Agriculture.” International Journal of Technology and Globalization 2, nos. 1/2: 93-114.

Bennett, Alan, G.D.Graff, B.D. Wright, and D. Zilberman. 2004 “Access to Intellectual Property is a Major Obstacle to Developing Transgenic Horticultural Crops,” California Agriculture, Vol. 58, No. 2: 120-127.

Binenbaum, Eran, C. Nottenburg, P.G. Pardey, B. D. Wright, and P. Zambrano. 2003. “South-North Trade, Intellectual Property Jurisdictions, and Freedom to Operate in Agricultural Research on Staple Crops.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 51(2): 309-355.

Boettiger, Sara, E. VanDusen, G.D. Graff, P.G. Pardey, and B. D. Wright. 2003. “Intellectual Property Rights for Plant Biotechnology: International Aspects.”  Handbook of Plant Biotechnology, eds. Paul Christou and Harry Klee.  John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Koo, Bonwoo, and B.D. Wright. 2003. “Economics in Patenting an Input Essential to Further Research.” In Economics, Law and Intellectual Property: Seeking Strategies for Research and Teaching in a Developing Field, eds. Ove Granstrand. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Nottenburg, Carol, P.G. Pardey, and B.D. Wright. 2002 “Accessing Other People’s Technology for Non-profit Research.” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 46:3: pp. 389-416.

Wright, Brian D. 2002.  “Biotechnology and Intellectual Property.”  Chapter 8 of California Council on Science and Technology, Benefits and Risks of Food Biotechnology:  July 151-165.

Graff, G., A. Bennett, B.D. Wright, and D. Zilberman. 2001.  “Intellectual Property Clearinghouse Mechanisms for Agriculture:  Summary of an Industry, Academia, and International Development Round Table.  IP Strategy Today.  No. 3-2001, pp12-30.

Wright, Brian D. 2001. “Challenges for Public Agricultural Research and Extension in a World of Proprietary Science and Technology.” In Proceedings of Knowledge Generation and Transfer: Implications for Agriculture in the 21st Century. Edited by Steven Wolf. Greenwood Press. Chapter 4. 63-76.

Binenbaum, Eran, P.G. Pardey, and B.D. Wright. 2001. “Public-Private Research Relationships: The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83(3): 748-753.

Yoo, Seung Jick, and B.D. Wright. 2000. “Persistence of Growth Variation in Tree-Ring Chronologies.” Forest Science 46(4): 507–520.

Wright, Brian D. 2000. “Intellectual Property Rights Challenges and International Research Collaborations in Agricultural Biotechnology.” In Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: Towards Optimizing the Benefits for the Poor. Edited by M. Qaim, A. Krattiger, and J. von Braun. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Chapter 18: 289–314.

Wright, Brian D. 2000. “International Crop Breeding in a World of Proprietary Technology.” In Agriculture and Intellectual Property Rights. Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology. Edited by V. Santaniello, R.E. Evenson, D. Zilberman, and G.A. Carlson. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. Chapter 8: 127–138.

Wright, Brian D. 2000. Book Review of: Krimsky, S. and R. Wrubel. Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1996. In Agricultural Economics 1431(2000): 1–2.


UPOV Report on the Impact of Plant Variety Protection (2005) (PDF - 12MB)
UPOV Publication 353(E)




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