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Tomato brown rugose fruit virus, capsicum - Russia ex China: intercept


A ProMED-mail post
http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org

Date: Tue 10 May 2022
Source: HortiDaily [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9425560/1-176-tons-of-virus-infected-peppers-from-china-not-allowed-into-transbaikalia/

On inspection by Rosselkhoznadzor [Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance] at the Trans-Baikal Territory border of the Russian Federation, 2 batches of capsicum fruit from China were found infected with tomato brown rugose fruit virus.

Over one ton of regulated produce was stopped. The detection was confirmed by virological studies at the Zabaikalsky Reference Centre of Rosselkhoznadzor. The consignments were banned from importing into Russia.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED

[_Tomato brown rugose fruit virus_ (ToBRFV) was recently identified as a new member of the genus _Tobamovirus_ (type member _Tobacco mosaic virus_, TMV) in Jordan and soon after in Israel (see links below). Since then, it has also been reported from a number of other countries in Europe and the Mediterranean region, where it appears to be spreading, as well as from North America and China (ProMED post 20190903.6654138). It was shown to affect also capsicum and has been detected in both plants and seeds of both crops. ToBRFV symptoms on tomato vary depending on host cultivar but may include chlorosis, mottling, mosaic, crinkling (rugosis) on leaves; necrotic spots on petioles and calyces; yellowish mottling, brown spots, rugosis on fruit, making them unmarketable. On capsicum, leaf symptoms are similar; fruits may be deformed with yellow mottling or green stripes. Almost 100% incidence was reported for some outbreaks in tomato but not every fruit on an infected plant may show symptoms.

ToBRFV (like many tobamoviruses) is seed transmitted and can also be spread by mechanical means, contaminated equipment, as well as with plant or other materials. It is very stable and can remain infectious for months outside a host. Recently, bumblebees which are used widely as commercial pollinators in glasshouse tomato production, have been shown to be effective vectors of ToBRFV (see link below). Volunteer crop plants and solanaceous weed species are likely pathogen reservoirs. The Tm-22 resistance gene used in some tomato cultivars to protect from other tobamoviruses (such as _Tomato mosaic virus_) does not appear to be effective against ToBRFV. Disease management relies mainly on exclusion but may include phytosanitation (disinfecting tools, removing crop debris) and control of virus reservoirs. Use of certified clean seeds or crop transplants is crucial. Research on possible seed treatments to eliminate the virus is being carried out (see link below). Tomato seeds are traded widely and are known to pose a risk of spreading viruses and other pathogens internationally (for example, ProMED post 20140122.2222560).

Coinfection of ToBRFV with _Pepino mosaic virus_ (genus _Potexvirus_) and _Tomato spotted wilt virus_ (genus _Orthotospovirus_) have been found in tomato (ProMED posts 20191029.6751082, 20200507.7307615). It is thought that the respective symptoms may have been due to either virus or to synergism. Further research is needed to clarify a potential role of ToBRFV in coinfections and to determine whether its presence in coinfections may have led to earlier cases of misdiagnosis and delayed identification of this new virus.

Maps
Russia (with neighbouring countries):
https://annamap.com/russia/russia-map.jpg,
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8703187,6072, and
https://www.worldometers.info/img/maps/russia_physical_map.gif
Location of Trans-Baikal region:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Transbaikalia_in_Russian_Empire_%281914%29.svg

Pictures
ToBRFV symptoms on capsicum:
https://www.naktuinbouw.nl/sites/default/files/news/20100623_M_0275.jpg and
https://agriculture.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0009/555759/TOBRFV_figure-5.jpg
ToBRFV on tomato:
https://gd.eppo.int/media/data/taxon/T/TOBRFV/pics/1024x0/4137.jpg,
https://gd.eppo.int/media/data/taxon/T/TOBRFV/pics/1024x0/4138.jpg,
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure/image?size=inline&id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170429.g001 and
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321639141/figure/fig2/AS:569722670247937@1512843877331/Tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-ToBRFV-infected-tomato-Solanum-lycopersicum-plants.png

Links
Information and characterisation of ToBRFV:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/TOBRFV (with distribution & host list),
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2677-7 (Jordan),
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170429 (Israel), and via
https://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus/3579397
ToBRFV in capsicum:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2020.041.020,
http://dx.doi.org/10.18781/R.MEX.FIT.1810-5 and
https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1189-PDN
ToBRFV spread by pollinators:
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210871
Tomato resistance breeding:
https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9265808/we-can-eradicate-tobrfv-from-the-tomato-industry-with-our-newly-found-resistance/ and
https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9272889/commercial-tomato-variety-with-tobrfv-resistance-to-be-offered-in-early-2021/
ToBRFV seed treatment:
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-02151-1
International spread of tobamoviruses by seeds (review):
https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.70244
Virus taxonomy via:
https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/
- Mod.DHA]

See Also

2021
----
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Syria: 1st rep 20210915.8669375
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Austria, Switzerland: 1st reps 20210811.8585572
Multiple viruses, tomato - India: (MH) 20210705.8495612
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Turkey: (AL) 20210524.8377530
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Italy: (SC) spread 20210309.8235916
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - New Zealand: 1st rep 20210113.8100865
2020
----
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Italy: (SC) 20201112.7936491
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Africa: 1st rep (Egypt) 20200507.7307615
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Spain: 1st rep (AN) 20200206.6959141
2019
----
Virus double infection, tomato - Netherlands: (ZH) 20191029.6751082
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - China: 1st rep (SD) 20190903.6654138
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - UK, Turkey: 1st reps 20190722.6580891
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Mexico: alert 20190429.6448297
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus - Germany: 1st rep (NW) 20190117.6264517
2018
----
Undiagnosed leaf curl virus, tomato seed - Egypt 20181012.6086559
and additional items on tobamoviruses in the archives



More news from: ISID (International Society for Infectious Diseases)


Website: http://www.isid.org

Published: May 12, 2022

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